Investing 101: What New Investors Need to Know
Many of us have heard the term “investments” used in many ways - and it’s a concept most of us are familiar with to some degree. But unless you’ve really taken an interest in the markets or set aside time to study them, you may not have a total understanding of what investing is, everything involved with investing or what different types of investments are out there. But before you do a deep dive into theories, past performances or principles, we’ll get you up to speed with the basics of investing and what you should know as you look to grow your financial knowledge.
What Is Investing?
In its simplest form, investing is the process of giving money to another entity (such as the government or a company) with the hope that they will return more money to you (a profit) at a later time. While it sounds simple enough, giving money to another with the expectation of gaining more in return introduces the idea of weighing risk versus reward.
According to the Financial Consumer Agency of Canada, risk refers to “the potential of losing your money when investing, or the level of uncertainty regarding what you will earn or lose on your investment.”1
How does this relate to investments? In general, the higher the risk of an investment, the greater the potential reward. Every investment vehicle and product comes with its own set of risks, from determining how quickly an investor will be able to access their money when they need it, to figuring out how fast their money will grow where it is.
Everyone’s tolerance for risk is unique to them. A common determining factor may be a person’s time horizon, such as how far away they are from retirement, or how close they are to needing access to the money invested. Another factor could be considering how much money you’re willing to risk losing without affecting your lifestyle or jeopardizing your needs.
If Investing Is a Risk, Why Do It?
Due to inflation, the value of a dollar in your hand (or under the mattress) is continuously deteriorating - which is what makes investing an appealing choice for many. The idea is to put a certain amount of your dollars in a place where they’re expected to earn more in the future (assuming a positive return is earned) than a dollar left sitting in savings.
Common Types of Investments
You’ve likely heard of the term “diversification” in regards to investing. Diversification refers to having a variety of different asset classes or investment types in your portfolio. This is an important strategy investors use to help reduce risk.
Here are a few common types of investments you could use to diversify your portfolio:
- Stocks: Giving your money to a specific company, earning you a share or piece of the company in return.
- Mutual funds: Using a professional money manager, pooling your money together with other investors and purchasing a group of stocks, bonds or a mix of both in a single transaction.
- Exchange-traded funds: Index funds that can be traded on an exchange throughout the day, as the prices of stocks fluctuate.
- Canada Savings Bond (CSB): Loaning your money to the federal government, with a minimum guaranteed interest rate for a three-year period.
- Guaranteed investment certificate (GIC): Your initial invested capital is protected, meaning you won’t lose money on the investment.
Whether you’re interested in taking a do-it-yourself approach or you’re looking to work with an advisor to develop a tailored portfolio, it’s important to understand the basics of what investing is, how diverse your options are and the risks involved with seeking returns.